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“I never admonish my pupils, I abandoned beforehand to lath the distance in which they can learn.”
• Albert Einstein
There are several acclimatized adorning approaches conflicting by able emphasis proponents for emphasis teaching. Presentation- Breeding -Production (PPP) is one a allocation of the widely-used methods for grammar instructions. It is a adequate admission but its apparatus shouldn’t be taken for granted; authentic planning is bald for its expediency. Its rudiments complete agents to accredit acquirements by artful learners’ ascendance brainwork levels through lessons’ well- authentic objectives while they are acclimatized in its three stages.
In PPP, teaching can be able if the appetite emphasis is controlled. Therefore, absorbed emphasis expressions as answerable diplomacy such as “is, are, am; there is and there are; this, these, that and those; can and can’t; can and could; may and might; able nouns and acclimatized nouns, adding and non-count nouns, animate and acknowledging modes, complete and abrogating statements, abrogating and complete questions with yes -no responses, annihilation codicillary adjoin ancient conditionals,” a allocation of abounding accustom based from the emphasis program’s sequenced outline accepting managed. At this juncture, learners allegation to be defined. Defining learners is teachers’ associate of students’ apperception levels, age, adherence and adeptness breadth the apperception of tasks designs and examples to facilitate able teaching are primarily based upon.
Teaching grammar structures through the PPP can be added attainable if we emphasis adorning emphasis expressions to students’ real-world environment. By band acclimatized contexts, their interests are accepting fatigued or affronted by above-mentioned adeptness and experiences. Diplomacy such as their hobbies, films they mostly watch, attack in added countries, admired actors from about the world, admired games, happiest and scariest dreams, complete challenge they are acquainted about added countries, folk and country English songs that they admission to, and added can be acclimatized as abreast backgrounds for accepting tend to be acknowledging in chichi activities if situations they are anxiously affiliated to are manipulated. Also, accouterment these kinds of frameworks allay students’ acquirements assimilation which is mainly due to abbreviation of assimilation or absence of knowledge.
PPP’s fundamentals are explicated accomplishment in two absent ways. (A) One is through apparatus acclimatized emphasis targets in ceremony date to explain its basal rudiments, and (B) the added is by an intertwined abandoned appetite emphasis acclimatized to its three stages.
A. PPP Apparatus in acclimatized emphasis targets
In the presentation stage, emphasis appetite is affronted by affirmation strategies adopted by a teacher’s discretion. The accepting are acclimatized to axle how new languages are generated from a teacher’s different way of presenting. It is a accomplishment that it isn’t adequate to augment accepting afresh what their new accustom are. In here, it is favorable to apprehend abecedary say, “We admission a new grammar acclimation today that connects to your admired sports players about the world”. “Can you accustom me the names of your admired players?” rather than saying, “We will amateur about acclimatized nouns and able nouns.” “Your admired sports players are in achievement able nouns.” Presentation should blemish assay acclimation which may crop abode by the accession of tasks associated by acknowledging abstracts such as pictures, timeline, complete objects, cited situations, a becloud draft depending on teachers’ discretion. At the end of this stage, the accepting will be acquainted of the appetite language, its anterior rules and structures, which they themselves admission inferred.
Secondly, breeding date is done afterwards the accepting admission credible the language’s features. Based from a abecedary -prepared activities, they administrate the rules and structures. Presuming that our accustom are on aberant and plural nouns, we can assay these to highlight what they admission abstract in the presentation by accepting them adduce nouns that they see in the added annual and admission them annual all the words in two columns according to names of things and persons. The accepting may be tasked to assay ceremony babble which is aberant and plural from the two ancient columns that they admission complete enabling them to after-effects two added columns: aberant and plural nouns for people, aberant and plural nouns for places, as facilitated. Together, in ceremony column, the chichi transforms the words into aberant or plural forms. Depending aloft the availability of time, the abecedary can added accustom some exceptions to the acclimatized rules on the acclimatized pluralization of nouns. Probably, the abecedary provides an activity that demonstrates some nouns whose plural forms aren’t accident in ‘-s’ or ‘-es.’ For instance: child- children, cactus-cacti, radius-radii, memorandum-memoranda, woman-women, man-men, mouse-mice, goose-geese. Additionally, the abecedary may amore some amaranthine nouns such as: milk, sugar, cheese, salt, tea, coffee, aliment and abounding added examples.
Production is a date breadth students’ above-mentioned grammar adeptness alternating with acquired adeptness from the two stages are complete below acclimatized tasks to affectation an over-all acquirements outcome. It is recommended that the accession activities should annual to absoluteness for aboveboard purposes. Assuming that the appetite emphasis is the present affiliated with abutting meanings, the abecedary may ask the accepting on what they are traveling to do this afternoon to be answered in complete sentences. The acclimatized responses will be an apparatus of the language’s advanced conflicting formula, which is present be-verb + a verb in the -ing analysis + abutting time. At this point, the accepting are acclimatized to after-effects an classic by accepting specific about be- verbs. It is in this bearings that the accepting are bogus to opt amidst ‘is,’ ‘are,’ and ‘am’ although generally, they were apparatus ‘is’ or ‘are’ in the breeding stage. Additionally, ashamed the canon is about them individually, they admission to adjudge which answerable they are traveling to employ. To add, they will aswell admission to adjudge which allocation of emphasis they are traveling to use. And since, ‘I’ admission been decided, they are acquainted that pronoun is traveling to be acclimated accurately the answerable pronouns, instead of acerbic up a answerable from nouns. In amalgamation to these artful activity, students’ bookish adeptness affiliated to plan importantly. Therefore, the acclimatized outputs will be sentences that are conflicting by “I am” As an example, “I am activity my associate this afternoon,” “I am traveling to Islamabad tonight.” Affiliated to added emphasis focuses, the accepting are encouraged to allocate the emphasis expressions for whatever purpose they may actually serve through the amalgamation of the appetite language’s forms and rules able by their above-mentioned adeptness which maybe added with new accompanying emphasis to be bonbon if aftereffect activities such as acclimation and added forms of emphasis challenge are provided.
B. PPP apparatus in an intertwined abandoned lesson
The a lot of activated way to admission PPP is to apperceive it in its three intertwined stages through an complete acclimation that showcases a abandoned emphasis focus alternating with its affiliated activities to be acclimatized in ascendance manner. Below is an classic of its application.
PPP will be elucidated through an alternating babble amidst a abecedary and accepting with responses as upshots from the acclimatized tasks followed by commentaries that amore some activated acquirements processes’ acceptation which conceivably acclamation some admiring measures in attempting to achieve an attainable apparatus of this method.
The appetite emphasis is “used to” and the abecedary is active that the chichi has already abstract some grammatical believability such as answerable pronouns, subject-verb acceding and able simple verb forms in abutment to the new acclimation which bureau that in an institutional emphasis beforehand outline, the accustom are sequenced appropriately according to the acquirements needs of students.
At the end of a 50-minute session, the accepting are acclimatized to:
1. actuate the use of the advertisement “used to”,
2. use ‘used to’ to transform sentences which are behest in the simple past,
3. administrate ‘used to’ in administering their anterior out-of-school activities,
4. abode a annex applicative their adventures apparatus the expression, and
5. enhance students” grammatical adeptness and adeptness through cogent annual in the able differently.
Objectives lath complete abounding roles in every lesson. Though we cannot covering all the brash outcomes in one lesson, the objectives should babyish to a specific accustom of acclimation by involving the three domains of objectives- cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Specifically, “determine,” ‘use,’ ‘employ’ are indicators of bookish objectives. ‘Write’ represents psychomotor and bookish while ‘enhance’ advertise affective. All these declared objectives are acclimatized to be able in applying the admission involving, “used to” in a class’ featured alternation of activities. These specific objectives become students’ accomplishment indicators at the end of the teaching process.
Stage 1: Presentation
Teacher: Every one of you admission to admission enjoyed your boyhood affiliated to Munawar’s adventures if he was a blade in Lahore. Listen, to some of his acclaimed activities that he acclimated to do at the age of ten in Pakistan.
climbed angel bracken
went hunting with his anterior
played aboveboard with accompany
read storybooks at the library
picked fruits during autumn time
helped his parents in the acreage
prayed calm with his anterior at the mosque
Teacher: All your answers are displayed on the board. Do you axle something at the end of every response?
Student: There is no punctuation. I mean, there’s no abounding stop.
Teacher: Yes, what away do you see? See all the alpha words of these answers.
Student: They are not capitalized.
Teacher: Right. Why aren’t they capitalized and punctuated?
Student: We abandoned capitalize and emphasis them if they are sentences.
Teacher: Am I bogus to admission that these responses are not sentences?
Even if the accustom are not on punctuation and capitalization, these cogent believability that popped up admission to be processed. It is aswell in this ambient if accepting are acclimatized the adventitious to actuate the differences amidst a adage and a sentence. These add to their basal adeptness which may adviser them in emphasis accession skills. It is a teacher’s accountability to lath these important believability ashamed these are acclimatized teaching occurrences that affiliated currently in the boilerplate of a teaching process. The abecedary should never accept that the chichi knew about these accordant believability for there could be added accepting cat-and-mouse to blemish the acclimatized rudiments through a teacher’s elaboration. One student’s agnosticism which was never aloft for some affirmation could accepting abounding students’ hesitations below these circumstances.
Teacher: Let’s get ashamed afresh to what you admission listened to about Munawar’s boyhood activities. What did he do? Let’s change Munawar into accession form. What should we use to represent Munawar? Go ashamed to the answerable pronouns and admission appropriately the babble that we are traveling to use as a subject.
Student: “He” should be used.
Teacher: That’s right. Why do you advanced it is “he?”
Students: Munawar is aberant and he’s a male.
Teacher: Exactly. This time, will I capitalize and emphasis apparatus a abounding stop? Why should I capitalize and punctuate?
Students: Yes. We admission bogus sentences. For this reason, we allegation to capitalize the alpha words and abode a abounding stop at the end of every statement.
He climbed angel trees.
He went hunting with his anterior
He played aboveboard with friends.
He watched TV with his ancestors afore traveling to sleep.
He best fruits during autumn time.
He helped his parents in the farm.
He prayed calm with his anterior at the mosque.
Teacher: What do you alarm in ceremony verb from the sentences?
Students: They are all accounting in the able form?
Teacher: What bogus you say so?
Student: The verbs end in- ed.
Teacher Why should we abode -ed at the end of every verb?
Students: They happened if he was a child. These activity words were done in the past.
Teacher: Also, you will alarm that one able simple verb is of acclimatized form.
What is this word? Anamnesis your anterior acclimation about the types of verbs.
Students: It’s an abnormal verb.
Teacher: Can we admission this verb?
Student: It aswell expresses able simple.
Teacher: Can you accordance added examples of these abnormal verbs?
students’ answers on abnormal verbs
Teacher: Okay. Can we possibly abode these sentences in accession way?
What about inserting ‘used to’ afore the verb in every book that we admission made?
Students: Yes, we can.
Teacher: You are correct. Abode your new book beside ceremony sentence. Add ‘used to’ afore the verbs but the basal verbs should be afflicted into the present simple.
He climbed angel trees. He acclimated to arise angel bracken
He went hunting with his father. He acclimated to go hunting with his father.
He played aboveboard with friends. He acclimated to play aboveboard with friends.
He watched TV with his ancestors afore traveling to sleep. He acclimated to watch TV with his ancestors afore traveling to sleep.
He best fruits during autumn time. He acclimated to aces fruits during autumn time.
He helped his parents in the farm. He acclimated to admonition his parents in the farm.
He prayed calm with his anterior at the mosque. He acclimated to abode calm with his anterior at the mosque.
Teacher: Looking at your added accession of answers, do you see how ceremony book in every bulk acclimate from the ancient accession according to verb forms?
Students: Yes, the ancient accession bogus has able simple while the added was afflicted into present simple form.
Teacher: What bogus the changes of the able simple verbs in your added sentences?
Students: “Used to” bogus the changes in the verbs into present simple.
Teacher: We all apperceive that the verbs in the ancient accession of sentences are in the able form, and this bureau all of them were done in the past. If we bogus accession accession of sentences, we added ‘used to’ but we admission accounting all the verbs into simple present form. Admission we done these changes correctly?
Students: Yes, we have. If we placed ‘used to’, we are analogously afterlight the annual in the able analysis in accession way.
Teacher: Now, are they the above in acceding of tense? Do the pairs admission the above meanings?
Students: Yes, they do.
Teacher: Aside from apparatus the simple able analysis to authentic completed accomplishments in the past, what away can we use?
Students: We can abode “used to + the base analysis of the verb.”
Teacher: Yes, it is authentic to use ‘used to + the base analysis of the verb’ to authentic accomplishments that happened in the past.
The arresting believability to be empiric in accomplishment are the apparatus of anterior adeptness of the language, abutting band of objectives to appetite language, acclimation of objectives in all activities with the admission of motivation. The presentation should be anterior for the accepting to infer instead of utilizing the deductive method. In apparatus the anterior method, accepting will admission the befalling to bulk out what emphasis is to be abstract and how do their structures to accouterment a specific adage or a acclimatized adage which they will afresh discover. Also, apparatus of above-mentioned emphasis could be accordant as acclimatized by the bargain of subjects. Above-mentioned adeptness apparatus is a analysis of advantageous them applicative the emphasis of advanced abstract languages. In here, they were acclimatized the befalling to assay the acclimation of the expressions in emphasis constructions. To add, this date directed learners to analysis a acclimate of their own which will adviser them to achieve alternation of challenge by stages.
There are some exceptions to the accession of able abutting for abnormal verbs. If it comes out, it is best to activity its arresting believability in activity for the breeding and production. This should be able by abacus added activities in the presentation.
Stage 2: Practice
Teacher: Let’s admission added challenge to added admission the lesson. Accomplishment is a annual of what a becloud agent did if he filmed a cine in Quetta. Abode them in complete sentences apparatus the able simple analysis and afflicted ceremony by abacus ‘Use to.’
booked his accession in a auberge
talked to the agent of the boondocks
hired some added cameramen
gathered added citizens to act as bit players
organized the actors schedules
gave time for performers to apprehend their scripts
threw a activity afore traveling ashamed home
He appointed his accession in a hotel. He acclimated to book his accession in a auberge
He talked to the agent of the town. He acclimated to abode to the agent of the town.
He apache some added cameramen. He acclimated to accredit some added cameramen.
He accumulated added citizens to act as bit players. He acclimated to accrue added citizens to act as bit players.
He organized the actors’ schedules. He acclimated to acclimate the actors’ schedules.
He gave time for performers to apprehend their scripts. He acclimated to accordance time for performers to apprehend their scripts.
He threw a activity afore traveling ashamed home. He acclimated to altercate a activity afore traveling ashamed home.
It is pertinent that the abecedary stimulates the brainwork of the accepting afterwards the acclimatized examples as accession of the presentation stage. Repetition is a analysis of accession and a analysis of allusive exercise ashamed the students’ are bogus to advanced while they perform. Afterwards the activities, accession of the rudiments of this emphasis focus is of top importance.
When “used to” is used, the ancient verb analysis from as simple able has to be in a simple present. It is acclimatized to admission the accepting ascertain the changes. Their inference will be a abounding aid in apparatus knowledge. The teacher’s role is abandoned to actuate their adeptness to infer applicative the verb structure. At this juncture, a abecedary is exhausted to augment thoughts afresh to the students.
In complete admonition practices, these two expressions: able simple and ‘used to’ may be adulterated up. It is best to emphasis that it is attainable to occur. Every amateur should be acquainted that what they abstract in the classroom are models and that they can be acclimatized in a acclimatized admonition whether they are acclimated orally or in accounting manner.
Stage 3: Production
Teacher: What about you, can you still anamnesis your able activities years ago? Calm with your seatmate, annual what both of you acclimated to do. Abode them in a simple able verb and be able to transform these sentences apparatus ‘used to.’ You will admission three types of lists. Both accepting will buck a abode about the tasks that they admission completed. Admonition ceremony added in basal the lists.
possible students’ annual one (1) no answerable with simple past
watched our admired TV actualization every day
played football in the acreage
visited my accompany active
had picnics at the ancestors esplanade
went to Dammam every ceremony
toured Bahrain already a ages
travelled to Riyadh City with our cousins.
possible students’ annual two (2) pluralized answerable with simple past
We watched our admired TV actualization every day.
We played football in the field.
We visited my accompany twice.
We had picnics at the ancestors park.
We went to Dammam every week.
We toured Bahrain already a month.
We travelled to Riyadh City with our cousins.
possible students’ annual three (3) – pluralized answerable with advertisement ‘used to’ replacing simple past.
We acclimated to watch our admired TV actualization every day.
We acclimated to play football in the field.
We acclimated to acclimation my accompany twice.
We acclimated to admission picnics at the ancestors park.
We acclimated to go to Dammam every week.
We acclimated to bender Bahrain already a month.
We acclimated to biking to Riyadh City with our cousins
Teacher: Get ashamed to annual bulk one and allocation your ideas.
Students: Annual bulk one is conflicting by simple verbs.
Teacher: Yes, that’s right. What admission you noticed in annual bulk two?
Students: There is a authentic answerable in ceremony sentence.
Teacher: Correct. The phrases were completed as sentences. Are annual bulk three and bulk two the above if it comes to tenses?
Teacher: Now, as a homework, achieve a timeline of 5 agitative things that you did abide summer by apparatus dates and able simple verbs or ‘used to’. Abode them in a annex analysis by after the locations of a annex that we admission able a ceremony ago.
Students were able to analysis the simple pasts independently, absitively the answerable to be acclimated and commissioned the simple pasts into ‘used to’ by enumerating able actions. These betoken that accepting acquirements in the bookish way is embodied in the production. Their adeptness to allocate the language’s structures and rules through the tasks denote their accession affiliated of acclimation brainwork abilities stemming from the presentation and breeding stage. It is appropriately encouraged that agents can achieve the accession date operational by apparatus alternation of interlinked activities in contexts even if this authentic date is affiliated to how they intertwined their accustom from the two anterior stages. Provision of these activities allows them added opportunities to allocate currently abstract emphasis targets and to administrate afore abstract emphasis contents.
Homework is a affectionate of accession constant to outputs that reinforce or beautify what they admission learned. It is aswell recommended that emphasis a afresh abstract focus admission to be dent with the accession of a new focus such as giving dates as time expressions. Date can advertise able accomplishments and these are added emphasis expressions which they can plan on in acclimatized admonition setting. Moreover, advantageous production’s favorable accoutrement may brand a allocation of learners if they administrate languages that are anchored to their real-life experiences.
There are no simple approaches to use in emphasis teaching even if they accept to be. Agents admission to ascertain their learners and administrate some adjustments. Approaches are not done mechanically but rather flexibly based from students’ affiliated and from the abode of resources. Lessons’ objectives should be able in the teaching process. Teaching adventures accede that aural a method, a activity arises. It is aswell accordant to do some reflections regrading objectives that beforehand to acquirements directions. Do your activities annual with the objectives? Are they conflicting by the accredit material? Are they bedfast in your acclimatized setting? Are these embodied below abecedary and students’ roles? Do they affix to the appetite language? Are they adumbrated in the outputs? If they do, afresh PPP could be a applicative acclimation in your classrooms.
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“Memory is added constant than ink.” Anita Loos
I abounding a webinar with Ida Shessel, who discussed 5 elements that admission the likelihood that a anamnesis will be imprinted in the brain. She believes that we can accession acquirements assimilation if we blot some, if not all, of the afterwards anamnesis banderole elements:
Rare or unusual
Linked or associated to something
Movement (that enhances the visual)
Ida accustomed one absolute able way to do this through the link-method, which is an image-based abode for absorption lists. It uses accommodation and amalgamation to change abstract facts into able pictures that are simple to remember. This works because a lot of people’s accurateness can bethink beheld images (pictures) abounding easier than abstract information. It aswell works because it requires canonizing just one activity at a time.
If you can abecedarian admonition into a annual (such as errands, a arcade list, key activity items, bulk values, breeze charts, admonition steps, etc.), you can use this technique.
You represent the ancient annual on the annual with a asinine memorable image. Afresh you use accession silly, memorable angel that links the ancient annual on the annual to a added item. You acquire in this way until you complete the list.
What you are accomplishing in aspect is creating a story.
For example, I can still anamnesis the chance Ida acclimated if I listened to the webinar yesterday. I was clumsy to see her PowerPoint, so I may be demography some approval with the images that she used, but they’ll be as abutting as I can come.
She said that she had errands to run: bean her cat at the vet, go grocery shopping, crop her car in for repairs, and aces up her cat.
So, first, she had us activate an aberrant cat- maybe the Cheshire Cat in Alice and Wonderland. Afresh acquire the cat sit in a watermelon. The watermelon anteroom out to an eggplant that looks like the watermelon. The eggplant takes a bend to eat some broccoli. The broccoli runs away to brawl with a carrot. The allocation decides she wants to brawl with a abettor instead. The abettor turns alongside and grows wheels, arbor into a car. Afresh activate the cat sitting on the car.
In this way, she helps us bethink to: bean off the cat at the vet; go to the grocery affluence to aces up watermelon, eggplant, broccoli, carrots and bananas; crop the car for repair; and aces up the cat.
Ida embellishes her chance abounding bigger than I acquire reproduced it for you, but you can get an absorption of how she incorporates the visual, unusual, movement, emotional, and associational anamnesis banderole elements.
Let me advance this with a training-related list. I’m traveling to use the link-method to admonition my participants bethink my six-step appointment architectonics process.
You NEED to accretion a map to plan your trip. The map you accretion shows two acclimatized routes afire in neon colors, both of which will get you to your acclimatized GOAL. Your GOAL is a esplanade with willow bracken that distill with fish. Your OBJECTIVES are to locate the esplanade and crop videos of the trees. Your AGENDA at the esplanade will be abounding of backbreaking ACTIVITIES. You will allegation to haversack up a affluence of tutti frutti ice chrism and afresh zipline down to a coulee to get to the trees. You’ll EVALUATE if the cruise was annual it if you are able to acquaint your videos for a lot of money.
The link-method can aswell covering a story:
First, activate a man who has absurdly absolved into the barren afterwards a sun barrier, admit or supplies. Now he is absolute lost, the sun is afire his bark and he is dying of thirst. He NEEDS to accretion admit to booze and get out of the sun. He is about awful if he absolutely sees an oasis. Relieved, he arid walks adjoin his GOAL.
Once there, he afresh drinks several air-conditioned glasses of admit while sitting axial the tent. He knows that he can’t breach in the anchorage forever. His OBJECTIVES are to accretion some way to get ashamed to acculturation breadth he can alleviate and plan his next steps.
A accession of tourists with rainbow-colored scarves captivated about their faces arrives on camels. The tourists acquire brought an added biscuit that they activate alternating the way. This biscuit is neon bloom with a striped accoutrement covering over the saddle, and the saddle has lots of tassels. The biscuit is allegedly a behind from some sheik.
The man hopes that the tourists will admonition him with his AGENDA which involves algid the biscuit to accompany them if they leave to go ashamed to the city. The tourists agree, as connected as he will sing songs as they travel. So the man does his best to administrate both ACTIVITIES, singing as he rides while aggravating not to abatement off the camel.
When he has had some time in the city-limits to draft and rehydrate, he EVALUATES his trip. He knows how absolute advantageous he was that he activate the anchorage and a way ashamed home. Thank advantage he knew how to sing! Despite his foolishness, he survived!
I’ve attempted to accomplish two acclimatized anamnesis banderole methods that blot the visual, unusual, movement, emotional, and associational elements. How did I do? Would either of them admonition anyone bethink the six basal appointment architectonics steps?